Swede could be heir to English throne.

Published: 11 Jan 07 17:00 CET | Double click on a word to get a translation.


Someone in Sweden could have a claim to the throne of England, and an international search has been launched to find out who.

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The quest has been started by English Heritage, which believes that the descendants of King Harold (Harold Godwinson), defeated by William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings in 1066, could be living in Scandinavia.

The state-run organization, which maintains historic English buildings, has placed adverts looking for descendants in newspapers in Britain, Norway, Australia, Germany and the United States, but says that there could also be potential claimants to the throne in Sweden.

“If William had not taken the throne in 1066, the entire course of English history would have been very different,” said Dr Nick Barratt, who presents BBC ancestry programme Who Do You Think You Are?

“We’d probably be speaking a different language, consider our closest allies to be Scandinavian and have a completely different system of government. Who knows? We may even be a republic by now.”

In fact, many of those who were vying for the crown in 1066 had Scandinavian links, although Harold’s were among the strongest. His mother was Gytha Thorkelsdóttir, granddaughter of Swedish Viking Styrbjörn the Strong.

The strong links between England and Scandinavia at the time are demonstrated by the Scandinavian-sounding name of Harold’s common law wife, Ealdgyth Swanneshals, known in English as Edith Swanneck.

The researchers are also looking for people of the lineage of Edgar the Aetheling, who was chosen as king but never crowned.

Simon Judges, who is promoting English Heritage’s ancestor search, says there are no plans to throw Elizabeth II off the throne.

“This is a what if scenario. We’re not into sedition or treason or anything,” he said. He also points out that the throne in that period was less likely than today to pass down through generations of the same family.

“There were many challenges to the throne at the time. In a sense, it was more democratic.”

People who think that they might be descended from one of the English kings are encouraged to visit a special website, where they can find out how to stake their claim.

Death of Harold Godwinson

The account of the battle Carmen de Hastingae Proelio (the Song of the Battle of Hastings), said to have been written shortly after the battle by Guy, Bishop of Amiens, says that Harold was killed by four knights, probably including Duke William, and his body brutally dismembered. Amatus of Montecassino’s L’Ystoire de li Normant (History of the Normans), written thirty years after the battle of Hastings, is the first report of Harold being shot in the eye with an arrow. Later accounts reflect one or both of these two versions. A figure in the panel of the Bayeux Tapestry with the inscription “Harold Rex Interfectus Est” (Harold the King is killed) is depicted gripping an arrow that has struck his eye, but some historians have questioned whether this man is intended to be Harold, or if Harold is intended as the next figure lying to the right almost prone, being mutilated beneath a horse’s hooves.

The spot where Harold Godwinson died which became the site of Battle Abbey.
Harold Stone

A hidden world revealed: Titan.

We’ve sent space probes to every planet in our solar system (and if you’re a die-hard Pluto fan, you only have to wait 4 more years). And yet there is still much to see, much to explore. Not every world gives up its secrets easily, and perhaps none has been so difficult to probe than Titan, Saturn’s largest moon. Bigger than Mercury, second only to Jupiter’s Ganymede, Titan has an atmosphere of nitrogen so thick it has twice the Earth’s air pressure at its surface.
That thick, hazy atmosphere is impenetrable by optical light… but infrared light can pierce that veil, and the Cassini space probe is well-equipped with detectors that can see in that part of that spectrum. And after 7 years, and 78 fly-by passes of the huge moon, there are enough images for scientists to make this amazing global map:

Pretty awesome. And making this animation was a huge effort. First, not all of the passes were at the same distance, so scientists had to resize the images to match the scale. Cassini passed at different times of day for the local regions, so the sunlight angle changed, making illumination and shadowing different. The atmosphere of Titan is dynamic, changing with time, so again compensations must be made. It’s painstaking work, but the results are truly incredible:

In this false-color map, what’s shown as blue is actually light at a wavelength of 1.27 microns — very roughly twice the wavelength the human eye can detect. Green is 2 microns, and red is 5 microns, well out into the infrared. When the final images are combined, what show up as brown regions near the equator are actually vast dune fields, grains of frozen hydrocarbons rolling across the plains in the relentless Titanian winds. White areas are elevated terrain. Near the north pole, only barely visible, are smudges on the map that have been shown to be lakes — literally, giant lakes of liquid methane!
So Titan has air, lakes, and weather. Sound familiar? It’s not exactly Earth-like, since the temperature there is roughly -180°C (-300°F), but the similarities are compelling. And Titan is loaded with organic compounds like methane, ethane, and more. A complex chemistry is certainly possible there, but complex enough to have formed life? No one knows. Just a few years ago I don’t think anyone would’ve taken the possibility seriously, but now… well, I wouldn’t rule it out.
Remember, these maps only show global features, and even though Cassini dropped the Huygens probe onto the surface, it saw a tiny fraction of what there is to see on this moon, which boasts over 80 million square kilometers of territory. That’s a lot of land. What else is there to find there?