Рюрик.

Основные моменты жизни

Князь Новгородский (862-879);

Наряду с легендой о “призвании варягов” русские летописи сохранили некоторые конкретные данные о Рюрике, позволяющие составить представление о событиях в Новгороде, которые образуют реальную основу этой легенды. В Ипатьевской летописи содержатся данные о том, что до Новгорода Рюрик сидел в построеном им городе-замке в Ладоге. Это свидетельство, подтверждаемое скандинавскими источниками, а также археологическими находками предметов скандинавского происхождения в районе Ладоги, подрывает саму основу легенды о “призвании варягов” из-за моря.

По мысли В.О.Ключевского, Рюрик прибыл в Новгород из Ладоги, находящейся от Новгорода всего в двухстах километрах вниз по течению р.Волхов, в качестве предводителя наемной варяжской дружины, приглашенной туда новгородскими старейшинами во время внутренних усобиц. Эти усобицы и помогли ему захватить власть в Новгороде.
Превращение Рюрика из предводителя наемной дружины в новгородского князя способствовало прекращению усобиц и усилению роли Новгорода как политического центра союза северной группы славянских племен.

Это позволило преемнику Рюрика Олегу организовать поход на юг, завершившийся завоеванием Олегом Киева и перенесением центра объединенного государства в Киев. Это событие, относимое летописью к 882 году, традиционно считается датой образования Древнерусского государства.

Реально родоначальником русской княжеской династии был Игорь (877-946х). И лишь в XII веке летописец Нестор в “Повести временных лет”, стремясь идеологически укрепить единство Русской земли, создает свою легендарную родословную, в которой княживший в Новгороде Рюрик становится “отцом” Игоря, княжившего в Киеве.

Rurik
Rurik

Варяги


Варягами (Varingiar) назывались жители скандинавских полуостровов, служившие у византийских императоров и переходившие из отечества в Грецию через русские земли водяным путем по рекам от Балтийского моря до Черного.

Варяги название наемных воинов-дружинников различного происхождения. Их приглашали для участия как в междоусобных столкновениях, так и в войнах с соседними народами и племенами. Варягами на Руси называли и скандинавских купцов, занимавшихся торговлей на пути “из варяг в греки”, т. е. по водным путям из Балтийского в Черное и Средиземное моря. По смыслу скандинавский термин “варяг” является равноценным русскому “ротник” – “присягнувший”, “давший клятву в верности” (рота – присяга).
Кононенко Михаил. Варяги.

Варяги. В истории нашего народа, в становлении русской государственности немаловажную роль сыграли полабские славяне, или варягорусы, потомки лютичей и бодричей, более известные под коротким названием «варяги» или, в ином написании, «варязи». Их появление на Новгородских землях породило легенды о причастности норманнов к становлению русской государственности.
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Варяги (из энциклопедии).

ВАРЯГИ (позднегреч. Bârangoi, от древнесканд. vaeringjar — норманские воины, служившие у византийских императоров), древнерус. название жителей Скандинавии. По имени В. Балтийское море до 18 в. называлось русскими Варяжским.
В рус. источниках В. впервые упоминаются в записанной в «Повести временных лет» легенде о «призвании варягов» (Рюрика и его братьев), с к-рой летописец начинал историю Русской земли. Эта легенда послужила исходным пунктом для создания в 18 в. антинауч. норманской теории происхождения Рус.

Rurik & Slavic tribes expansion Kievan Rus, Galicia Volhynia, Muscovy [ Early Russia ]


Kievan Rus was a medieval european state which existed from 880 populated by Old East Slavic warrior elite tribes, today our three modern East Slavic nations Belarusians, Russians and Ukrainians. Rurik Dynasty which ruled Kievan Rus and then Galicia Volhynia until the 14th and Muscovy until the 16th century. In 1019 our Slavic tribes take the acceptance of Christianity and the creation of the first East Slavic written legal code, the Russkaya Pravda.
The Slavic tribes and Varangians Rus tribes integration is what is known as East Slavic people “Belarusians, Russians and Ukrainians”.
Rurik was a Varangian Rus. The Vagarians was Scandinavian Vikings tribes who left Scandinavia and immigrated to Eastern Europe. The Slavic with Vagarian integration was the beginning of the Kievan Rus. With the time the Slavic culture and language absorbed the Norse culture and language and Vagarians become into East Slavic.
As a historic and scientific fact only East Slavic people have Vagarian Rus ancestry and blood the Vikings tribes who remained in Scandinavia not have Vagarian blood or ancestry.
Although historians and scientists know that Belarusians, Russians and Ukrainians have Varangian ancestry they can not determine if Vagarians are the dominant ancestors or the Slavic are the dominant ancestors because Slavic and Varangian are of R1a and R1b haplogroups typical for Slavic, Germanic and Celts peoples.

A monument celebrating the millennium of Rurik's arrival to Novgorod.
A monument celebrating the millennium of Rurik's arrival to Novgorod.

REFLECTIONS ON VIGRIDR/OSKOPNIR AND IDAVOLLR: THE NORSE WORLD DURING AND AFTER RAGNAROK.

By August Hunt

In the Old Norse poem “Voluspa”, which tells of the Ragnarok of Doom of the Powers that is, essentially, the end of the world, we learn that the gods reside (strophe 7) at a place called Idavollr. Later, following the universal destruction of the last battle, gods and men reappear in a new Idavollr (strophe 57), itself situated somewhere on a new earth that rises out of the sea.

At first Idavollr – which has been subject to various etymologies – would appear to be merely a mythological construct. However, as Rudolf Simek mentions in his Dictionary of Northern Mythology, Idavollr would appear to correspond perfectly to Idisiaviso, the name of a historical battle site located somewhere between Hameln and Minden on the Weser River in Germany. This was the place were the famous Cheruscan chieftain Arminius suffered a major defeat when fighting the Roman army under Germanicus. This defeat was part of Germanicus’s avenging of Arminius’s annihilation of the three Roman legions of Varus in the Teutoburg Forest (now believed to be in the vicinity of Kalkriese).

The identification of Idavollr with Idisiaviso reminds us very much of the Christian notion that a New Jerusalem would descend from the heavens onto the mountain of Zion after this faith’s eschatological vision unfolds. According to the Revelation of St. John, part of the Christian world destruction involves a battle at Armageddon, i.e. Har Meggido, a real city that had been the site of some major battles in the Old Testament. Because the place was well-known to Biblical audiences as a center of strife, it was symbolically selected as the location of the final conflict between the forces of good and evil.

Is there an Armageddon in the Old Norse escahatology? Well, as a matter of fact, yes, there is: it is called variously the plain of Vigridr or the island of Oskopnir. But do either or both of these battlefields represent an actual real-world location, as is the case with Armageddon in the Christian tradition? Or are they merely mythological constructs, as Idavollr was once thought to be?


‘Ragnarok’ by Johannes Gehrts, Old book illustration from Walhall Germanische Gotter und Heldensagen by Felix Dahn & Therese Dahn, published in 1903 (Photo courtesy Thorskegga)

Oskopnir is not a real place-name. Instead, it would appear to be a result of learned invention or even philosophical speculation. The-nir of this word is a fairly standard Old Icelandic suffix. Oskop- has been related, properly I think, to Old Icelandic word meaning something like “unmade”. Various translators of the Eddas have suggested as much, although I think they make a mistake is describing the place itself as that which is unmade, unshapen, uncreated, etc. Instead, we should see in the word something akin to “[the place of] unmaking”. In other words, Oskopnir is the antithesis of Creation, the place where the world is, literally, unmade during the paroxysms that attend the final battle. Oskopnir is referred to as an island most likely because the Norse had a fondness for the holmgangr or “island-going”, a description of the sacred and legal procedure to be followed during a duel. And Surt’s presence on the island may point to an active volcanic island. It may be that the plain Vigrdir is on the island or we may be dealing with two separate strains of eschatological development. In one, the battle was on an island and in another, it was on a plain.

Are we any better off with Vigridr in the sense of finding a real-world location for the last battle? First, the name itself is not without its difficulties. You will find it in Simek and Orchard, respectively, with the sense of “place on which battle surges” or “battle-surge”. Through a private communication with Professor Doctor Doctor Simek, I’ve learned that the ‘surge’ definition is an extrapolation from ridr, ‘to sway, swing’ (see both the Cleasby-Vigfusson and Zoega Old Icelandic dictionaries). More literally, Simek would render Vigridr as ‘a plain where the battle sways back and forth’. Orchard took his “surge” definition from Simek

Another problem with Vigridr is the plain’s size. We are told the plain stretches 100 leagues (read ‘120’ for the German long-hundred) in every direction. This is 360 miles in every direction, making for a total of 129,600 square miles or 335,662 square kilometers. So Vigridr is a huge plain, and its scale would once again point to this place as a mythological construct.

I would reluctantly conclude that Vigridr is merely a generic name for a place of battle and/or a poetic kenning for such.

New viking village discovered

New viking village discovered.

New viking village discovered

“Skalder og Legender” Viking ballads LIVE from Norway
Rare songs and ballads from the medieval times i Norway (the Viking period). Song and played in a traditional way, live at the Viking marked in the small rural countryside-village of Hemnes in Akershus/Norway. The performance took place August 16. 2009. CD’s and performance information are available at their Web: http://www.legende.no