Celtic Kingdoms of the British Isles.

Celts of Britain
Selgovae (Solway)

The Selgovae were an Iron Age Celtic people who occupied much of the territory between the Cheviot Hills and Dumfries in southern Scotland, probably with a southwards extension into the modern county of Northumberland and into eastern Strathclyde (Ptolemy says that they reached the Firth of Forth). They may have extended further to the west than is shown in the accompanying map, giving the Solway Firth their name, but perhaps this extension occurred later, after the building of Hadrian’s Wall and the loss of their southern territorial extension. They were certainly this far south-west by the time Ptolemy wrote, around the 140s. The tribe was neighboured to the east by the Votadini, to the south by the confederation of the Brigantes (and especially by the Carvetii), to the west by the Novantae, and to the north by the Damnonii.

The tribe remains little-known, mostly due to its lack of contact with the Continental Celts or the Romans before the latter’s invasion of the Brigantes in the AD 70s. They may have been related to at least some of the tribes that made up the Brigantian confederation, especially the Carvetii in the region of Carlisle, and for the most part they occupied the Southern Upland region of modern Scotland. While it seems obvious that the modern name of Solway (or Salway) is based on the tribe’s name, there is a claim that ‘Solway’ is an Anglo-Saxon construction, ‘sol’ meaning mud and ‘waeth’ meaning a ford, with the ford in question crossing the mudflats at Eskmouth. Documentary evidence for the name only begins in the thirteenth century, long after both the Celtic and Anglo-Saxon periods, so it is impossible to say which origin might be the correct one.

The Kings of Northern BritainThe tribe’s name breaks down as *selg-ā-(je/o-), ‘hunt’, so that *selgo-wiro-(??) means ‘hunter’. Irish Gaelic has seilg (vt, vi) for ‘hunt’. The tribe saw themselves as ‘the hunters’. In Brythonic this was possibly rendered as Selgowion or Selgowon. In Welsh, the Brythonic ‘s’ became an ‘h’ in many cases, so that ‘hunt’ was later rendered as ‘helfa’. The tribe’s capital was on Eildon Hill North near Melrose, and the Romans later built the fort of Trimontium, at Newstead, nearby. The Selgovae may have been one of the ‘four kingdoms of ancient Scotland’ which apparently became established in the second century. By the end of the fourth century the bulk of the Selgovae’s northern and central territory seems to have been taken over by Alt Clut, and the remnants were part of the supposed High King Coel Hen’s ‘Kingdom of Northern Britain’.

(Additional information by Edward Dawson, and from The Oxford History of England: Roman Britain, Peter Salway.)

AD 79

With the Romans advancing northwards in preparation for a campaign beyond the territory of the defeated Brigantes, the Selgovae abandon their hill fort capital at Eildon Hill North. Another two hill forts are also abandoned in the face of the Roman advance, these both being on the summit of Cademuir Hill, to the south-west of Peebles in the Border region. They are never reoccupied. Other tribal forts include Dreva Craig, south-west of Broughton in the northern Borders, Rubers Law, near Hanwick in Borders, and Tamshiel Rigg, south-east of Hanwick.

80 – 81 AD.

The Roman Governor of Britain leads two invading columns into Lowland Scotland, with (probably) the Twentieth and Ninth Legions meeting up at Inveresk (near Edinburgh) in the territory of the Votadini. The force sets up permanent garrisons in its wake. The following year the campaign continues into the territory of the Selgovae and Novantae tribes. A small wooden defensive position which possibly serves as a watch tower is set up at the western end of the Eildon Hill North hill fort.

A view of the three Eildon Hills, location of the Selgovae  oppida, or capital settlement
A view of the three Eildon Hills, location of the Selgovae oppida, or capital settlement

82 AD.

The western coast of Lowland Scotland is secured as far north as the Clyde in order that the Damnonii tribesmen there can be contained, and perhaps to prevent Irish landings. By this time, Governor Gnaeus Julius Agricola has founded the first military encampment at Newstead, and this becomes the new tribal capital of Trimontium under Roman rule.

c.140s

Ptolemy confirms the location of the Selgovae, and records their four major towns as Trimontium (Newstead, in the modern Borders), Carbantorigum, Corda, and Uxellum. The bivallate hill fort of Eildon Hill North, the tribe’s pre-Roman capital, overlooks Trimontium, although it is now abandoned. The latter name means, in Latin, ‘place of the three mountains’, the mountains being the three Eildon hills. The other major towns have yet to be located. Roman forts have been erected at three sites, Birrens, Netherby and Bewcastle, to provide advance warning of threats to the Wall. While the Selgovae themselves may not be a threat, they quite probably turn a blind eye to warbands from further north passing through, especially those of the Damnonii, who remain largely outside Roman control and are particularly aggressive in their defiance of the Romans.

c.175 AD.

The reorganisation of the frontier by Emperor Marcus Aurelius means that Roman troops largely pull out of the territory and withdraw to Hadrian’s Wall. The forts at Birrens and Netherby are retained for a time before being abandoned completely. The Selgovae remain entirely undocumented after Ptolemy, and whether they take part in the increasingly frequent incursions over the Wall in the later years of Roman Britain can only be guessed.

360 – 361 AD.

At the start of 360, Roman Caesar Julian (the Apostate) is wintering in Lutetia Parisiorum (the early Paris) when reports reach him that the Scotti and Picts have broken a previous agreement (perhaps made in 343) and are plundering lands close to the frontier, presumably those of the Novantae and Selgovae. Whether the campaign goes ahead under a less senior commander after the original commander is recalled is unknown.

4th century AD.

The Selgovae territory immediately north of Hadrian’s Wall emerges as part of the ‘Kingdom of Northern Britain’ in the late fourth century while the remainder seems to have been seized by the Britons of Alt Clut, the descendants of the Damnonii. By the start of the sixth century the remaining Selgovae region appears to be a self-governed minor kingdom under the name of Caer-Guendoleu.

View Map of Celtic BritainCaer-Guendoleu (Solway)

The former tribal area of the Selgovae, north of Hadrian’s Wall, crystallised as Caer-Guendoleu. This petty kingdom bore the same name as its chief stronghold, which was ruled by the king who was most closely associated with the area, Guenddolau, and which has survived as modern Carwinley. The kingdom was bordered by Bernaccia to the east, Rheged to the south, Galwyddel to the west, and Alt Clut to the north.

The Kings of Northern BritainThe Selgovae appear to have been staunchly opposed to the Roman invasion, judging by the number of forts built in their territory, but the early battles may have knocked the heart out of their defiance. Instead, the focus for resistance seems to have moved north, to the Damnonii, and it is this people who can be found dominating much of the Selgovae territory by the end of the fourth century. The southern remnant, near Hadrian’s Wall, was part of High King Coel Hen’s ‘Kingdom of Northern Britain’. According to tradition, this territory gradually broke up during the course of the fifth and early sixth century, and Caer-Guendoleu emerged as one of its last, and smallest, divisions.

As an independent territory, Caer-Guendoleu seems first to have been ruled by Ceidio, the son of Einion ap Mor, who was himself the first king of a reduced Ebrauc. Upon Einion’s death, his territory was divided between his sons, with Eliffer gaining Ebrauc itself, and Ceidio gaining the region north of the ‘Salway’ (the modern Solway). The new ruler’s title, ‘King North of the Salway’, reflected a remnant of Coel Hen’s grander title, although this is information that has only survived from several centuries after the event, making at least some of it rather suspect.

Descent of the Kings of Northern BritainWhen Ceidio’s son was killed in battle in 573, close relatives in the powerful kingdom of North Rheged absorbed the territory, with Urien’s two brothers ruling it, probably as a sub-kingdom. Once North Rheged had been destroyed, its remnants, including whatever remained of Caer-Guendoleu, seem to have been taken over and held into the eleventh century by Alt Clut, although the situation regarding this is extremely sketchy. It may have fallen under Viking control from York for a time in the late ninth century.

(Additional information from The Landscape of King Arthur, Geoffrey Ashe, and from The Oxford History of England: Roman Britain, Peter Salway.)

c.505 AD.

Upon the death of Einion ap Mor, king of Ebrauc, his younger son, Ceido, inherits the western portion of the domain, gaining the remnants of the former Selgovae tribal territory.

c.505 – c.550 AD.

Ceidio ap Einion

Son of Einion ap Mor of Ebrauc. ‘King North of the Salway’.

547AD.

To the east, the British kingdom of Bernaccia is seized by the Angles who have been serving as laeti and the ruling king, Morgan Bulc is forced out. He takes refuge with the Goutodin, shifting his power base there, but the loss leaves Caer-Guendoleu’s border exposed to the invaders. Fortunately they remain relatively weak for some decades to come.

The incredibly scenic Solway Firth, one of the very few modern links back to the Selgovae, although a highly debatable one
The incredibly scenic Solway Firth, one of the very few modern links back to the Selgovae, although a highly debatable one

c.560 – 573 AD.

Guenddolau / Gwenddolew ap Ceidio

King of Caer-Guendoleu. Died at Battle of Arfderydd.

573 AD.

One of the most pointless and destructive disputes of the period arises over the stronghold of Caerlaverock (the ‘Fort of the Lark’), located on the northern side of the Solway Firth immediately south of Dumfries. This is very likely to be in Caer-Guendoleu’s territory, where it abuts that of Galwyddel. Although the spot is tranquil today, traces of fortification can still be seen nearer Liddel Water. Not far away is Arfderydd (Arderydd, Armterid, or even Atterith, and today known as Arthuret, near Longtown in Cumbria). The principle leader of the side opposing Guenddolau is Rhydderch Hen of Alt Clut, most probably for territorial reasons.

The Annales CambriaeGuenddolau dies in the battle at Arfderydd against Alt Clut, Ebrauc and Dunoting, with Rhydderch being backed up by Guenddolau’s own brother and cousin respectively. The early source of information for this event comes from the Annales Cambriae, which also records that ‘Merlin went mad’. This would be Myrddin Wyllt, Guenddolau’s court bard who ranks with Taliesin in seniority and who seems to be confused with a possible Merlin of the mid-fifth century in the eyes of later tradition (most especially by Geoffrey of Monmouth in The History of the Kings of Britain). This is one of many internecine wars which all serve to weaken the British defences in this century and, with the king having no heir, Caer-Guendoleu passes into the hands of another cousin, Urien Rheged of North Rheged, and is ruled by his two brothers.

573 – c.616

Llew ap Cynfarch

‘King in the North’. Brother of Urien Rheged.

573 – c.616

Arawn ap Cynfarch

‘King North of the Salway’. May have ruled alone 616-c.630.

c.616 – 632 AD

The remnants of North Rheged fall to Edwin of Bernicia and Caer-Guendoleu is apparently absorbed into Alt Clut, to be amassed into one complete southern territory known as Cumbria (after the British ‘people of the same land’, the Cymri). It perhaps exists as a pocket enclave until about 630, and is perhaps ruled by Arawn ap Cynfarch during that period, but the situation in this phase is even more obscure than for the rest of the kingdom’s existence. For a time during the late ninth century Cumbria (including Caer-Guendoleu) may be controlled by the Vikings of York, and for periods afterwards it is either a short-lived independent kingdom of Cumbria or a sub-territory of Strathclyde, before being claimed permanently by the English crown.

Conexões Arturianas em Arthuret(Cumbria)- Part 2.

Rhydderch Hael


Rhydderch Hael  Genealogy
Rhydderch Hael Genealogy


As incertezas textuais sugerem que a história da expedição a Arfon e a resposta de Rhun sejam provavelmente apócrifos, a sua criação, deve-se menos a eventos do século VI do que os posteriores propagandistas norte-galeses que, na busca de glorificar os seus próprios reis, retrataram Rhun como um ancestral daqueles reis e como um guerreiro poderoso que poderia travar uma guerra muito além de suas próprias fronteiras e contra figuras cuja fama já pode ter se tornado consagrado na tradição galesa.

A tradição galesa se refere a Rhydderch como um dos reis do norte britânico que lutou contra os primeiros nobres anglo-saxões do reino de Bernícia. A Historia Brittonum descreve-o como um inimigo de vários reis da Bernícia do final do século VI, mas o teatro das guerras entre eles não é identificado. Diz-se que ele se juntou a Urien de Rheged e Morcant Bulc em sua aliança malfadada:

Quatro reis lutaram contra eles, Urien e Riderch [Hael] e Gwallawg e Morcant. Teodorico lutou vigorosamente contra Urien e seus filhos. Durante esse tempo, por vezes o inimigo, por vezes os Cymry foram vitoriosos, e Urien sitiou-os por três dias e três noites na ilha de Ynys Metcaut. Mas durante esta campanha, Urien foi assassinado devido a uma instigação de Morcant, por inveja, porque a sua habilidade militar e de comando superava a de todos os outros reis
—Historia Brittonum, capítulo 63

A guerra contra Bernícia é uma das duas únicas campanhas militares em que Riderch Hael é dito ter-se envolvido, sendo a outra um ataque à corte de Strathclyde por Áedán mac Gabráin, rei de Dál Riata e um companheiro contemporâneo de São Columba, que está registrado nas Tríades galesas como Three Unrestrained Ravagings of the Island of Britain:

…quando Áedán, o Astuto, chegou à corte de Riderch, o Generoso, em Alt Clut; ele não deixou nem comida, nem bebida, nem animais vivos.

Além deste trabalho não há outros textos de apoio para provar a exatidão destes eventos. Porém, em um contexto amplo, não é realmente improvável, uma vez que Alt Clut e Dál Riata eram vizinhos, que tenham lutado muitas vezes durante os períodos pós-romano e medieval. Dál Riata era um relativo recém-chegado à política da Grã-Bretanha e incursões pelo gaels, bem como dos escoceses de Dál Riata eram comumente conhecidas, nas fronteiras dos reinos britônicos, em torno da Muralha de Adriano haviam sido típicas desde o tempo de Vortigern e anteriormente. Além disso, Áedán mac Gabráin é conhecido por ter sido um senhor da guerra particularmente belicoso cujas campanhas se estenderam desde a Pictavia até a Nortúmbria. É tentador atribuir a origem última deste material a corte de poetas de Strathclyde da própria época de Riderch. Uma Tríade menciona o cavalo de Rhydderch, Rudlwyt, significando “Dun-Grey”, enquanto outro fragmento poético dá nome a sua espada de Dyrnwyn, “Punho Branco,” como um dos lendários Treze Tesouros da Ilha da Grã-Bretanha.

Hadrians_Wall_from_Housesteads1_crop
Hadrians_Wall_from_Housesteads1_crop

Além das fontes galesas, o outro repositório principal de informações sobre Riderch Hael é a hagiografia em latim em torno de Kentigern, o santo padroeiro de Glasgow, cuja mais completa “Vida” sobrevivente foi escrita no final do século XII por Jocelyn de Furness, na atual Cúmbria, em nome do Bispo de Glasgow. Tentativas têm sido feitas para identificar possíveis elementos arcaicos e de fato agora parece provável que reúne várias vertentes de tradição muito antiga de Strathclyde, possivelmente originárias dos séculos VII ou VIII. Riderch Hael aparece como “Rei Rederech” e é retratado como patrono real e benfeitor de Kentigern, de quem o santo recebeu terras em Glasgow e sobre as quais fundou o bispado principal da grande região de Strathclyde.

A data da morte de Riderch é desconhecida, embora a Vida de Kentigern coloque a sua morte no mesmo ano da do santo, que de acordo com os Anais galeses, ocorreu em 612, que é ajustado pelos historiadores para 614. Esta data é apoiada por Adomnán que se refere a Riderch como um contemporâneo de São Columba, que morreu em 597. A afirmação de Adomnán de que Riderch não morreu em batalha pode estar correta: o cumprimento da profecia de Columba era a questão importante para Iona e não havia nada a ganhar através da produção de um fim de ficção para um rei cuja vida e morte estavam, presumivelmente, já registrados nas tradições de Glasgow e Dumbarton.

Arthuret_Parish_Church
Arthuret_Parish_Church

As coleções galesas nomeiam a espada de Riderch de Dyrnwyn como um dos assim chamados Treze Tesouros da Ilha da Grã-Bretanha. Quando empunhada por um homem digno e bem-nascido, a lâmina inteira resplandeceria como fogo. Rhydderch nunca relutou em enfrentar qualquer um com a sua arma, o que explica o seu epíteto Hael, mas ninguém jamais ousou tocá-la.

Conexões Arturianas em Arthuret(Cumbria)- Part 1.


Arthuret é uma freguesia no distrito de Carlisle , Cumbria, Norte da Inglaterra. De acordo com o censo de 2001 tinha uma população de 2.434 habitantes . A freguesia inclui a pequena cidade de Longtown e da aldeia de Easton. É banhada pelo rio Esk a oeste ea Lyne rio para o sul.
O local da igreja com vista para o local da Batalha de Arfderydd, que aparece na obra “Vita Merlini” de Geoffrey de Monmouth e também no Cambriae Annales datada no ano 573. A batalha teve lugar logo no início do reinado do rei cristão de Strathclyde,

Rhydderch Hael [ 1 ]

, (padroeiro de São Kentigern, e suposto Myrddin irmão-de-lei), entre o pagão Warlord Gwenddoleu ap Ceidio e seus primos Peredur e Gwrgi, príncipes de qualquer Ebrauc (York Moderna), ou possivelmente de Gwynedd. Nesta batalha, Gwenddoleu perder a sua vida, e não se sabe se um de seus irmãos, Nudd e Caw, sobreviveram para sucedê-lo como rei de Arfderydd depois.
Nesta batalha Myrddin mata o sobrinho (por sua Gwenddydd irmã, esposa do rei Rhydderch Hael), que estava lutando do lado oposto cristã. Este ato levou Myrddin louco e passou o resto de sua vida vagando pelas florestas de Celyddon (ver) (Glennie 1869). 140 outros homens de classificação sofreu batalha locura e pereceram nestes bosques (Rich & Begg, 1991).
No Livro Negro de Carmarthen é gravado um poema que assume a forma de um diálogo entre Myrddin e os galeses bardo Taliesin (Skene 1988), que registra como Myrddin usava um torque de ouro e diz de sua tristeza pela morte do rei Gwenddolau, a quem foi chefe druida. A batalha está dito que durou seis semanas e três centenas de homens foram mortos e enterrados nas proximidades. Foi uma das três batalhas fúteis da Grã-Bretanha, disputado um ninho de cotovia.

[1] Riderch I de Alt Clut

Riderch I (fl. 580; morto c. 614), comumente conhecido como Riderch ou Rhydderch Hael (“o Generoso”), foi um governante de Alt Clut (a região em torno da atual Dumbarton Rock) e de uma região maior conhecida mais tarde como Strathclyde, um reino britônico que existiu no vale do rio Clyde na Escócia durante o período pós-romano britânico. Foi um dos reis mais famosos do Hen Ogledd (“Antigo Norte”), a área de fala britônica onde é hoje o sul da Escócia e o norte da Inglaterra, e aparece com frequência em trabalhos posteriores medievais escritos em galês e latim.

Fontes

De acordo com fontes, como as genealogias harleianas e o Vita Columbae de Adomnán, o pai de Riderch foi Tutagual de Alt Clut, que foi, provavelmente, seu antecessor como rei.[1] Um rei tirano chamado Tuduael, Tudwaldus ou alguma variação aparece no poema do século IX, Miracula Nyniae Episcopi e na Vita Sancti Niniani, de Ailred de Rievaulx, como um contemporâneo de Santo Niniano; esta é possivelmente uma referência ao pai de Riderch.[1] As genealogias registram Riderch como um descendente de Hen Dumnagual. Fora destas linhagens, os parentes de Riderch aparecem apenas em textos galeses, principalmente a poesia heróica e os fragmentos de saga preservados nas Tríades galesas. Um tal parente, Senyllt Hael, é creditado no poema Y Gododdin com ele visto presidindo uma corte real famosa por sua liberalidade. Outro, o filho do Senyllt, Nudd Hael, aparece com Riderch na tríade dos “Três Homens Generosos da Grã-Bretanha”.

Em um conto curioso preservado no código de leis galesas do século XII conhecido como o Livro Negro de Chirk, Riderch acompanha outros governantes do Norte em uma expedição militar ao Reino de Gwynedd, em Gales do Norte. Segundo a história, Elidir Mwynfawr, outro príncipe do Norte, tinha sido morto em Arfon, em Gwynedd. Em resposta, Riderch juntou-se a Clydno Eiddin, ao já mencionado Nudd Hael, e a outro desconhecido Mordaf Hael para buscar vingança contra o rei Rhun Hir ap Maelgwn de Gwynedd. Eles viajaram por mar e devastaram Arfon, mas foram expulsos pelas forças de Rhun. Rhun atacou Strathclyde e os fez recuarem até o rio Forth.

Aqui Elidyr Muhenvaur, um homem do norte foi morto, e após sua morte, os homens do norte, vieram até aqui para vingá-lo. Os chefes, os seus líderes, foram Clyddno Eiddin; Nudd Hael, filho de Senyllt; e Mordaf Hael, filho de Seruari, e Rydderch Hael, filho de Tudwal Tudglyd; e chegaram a Arvon, e porque Elidyr foi morto em Aber Mewydus, em Arvon, incendiaram Arvon por vingança. E então, Run, filho de Maelgwn, e os homens de Gwynedd, reuniram-se em armas, e marcharam até à margem do [rio] Gweryd no norte, e lá por muito tempo, discutiram quem deveria assumir a liderança.

Four Ancient Books of Wales