The Viking Journey of mice and men

New research carried out at the University of York and published in BMC Evolutionary Biology has used evolutionary techniques on modern day and ancestral mouse mitochondrial DNA to show that the timeline of mouse colonisation matches that of Viking invasion.

House mice (Mus musculus) happily live wherever there are humans. When populations of humans migrate the mice often travel with them.Human settlement history over the last 1000 years is reflected in the genetic sequence of mouse mitochondrial DNA

The Vikings in Iceland

During the Viking age (late 8th to mid 10th century) Vikings from Norway established colonies across Scotland, the Scottish islands, Ireland, and Isle of Man. They also explored the north Atlantic, settling in the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Newfoundland and Greenland. While they intentionally took with them domestic animals such as horses, sheep, goats and chickens they also inadvertently carried pest species, including mice.
A multinational team of researchers from the UK, USA, Iceland, Denmark and Sweden used techniques designed to characterize genetic similarity, and hence the relatedness of one population, or one individual, with another, to determine a mouse colonisation timeline.

Swede could be heir to English throne.

Published: 11 Jan 07 17:00 CET | Double click on a word to get a translation.


Someone in Sweden could have a claim to the throne of England, and an international search has been launched to find out who.

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The quest has been started by English Heritage, which believes that the descendants of King Harold (Harold Godwinson), defeated by William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings in 1066, could be living in Scandinavia.

The state-run organization, which maintains historic English buildings, has placed adverts looking for descendants in newspapers in Britain, Norway, Australia, Germany and the United States, but says that there could also be potential claimants to the throne in Sweden.

“If William had not taken the throne in 1066, the entire course of English history would have been very different,” said Dr Nick Barratt, who presents BBC ancestry programme Who Do You Think You Are?

“We’d probably be speaking a different language, consider our closest allies to be Scandinavian and have a completely different system of government. Who knows? We may even be a republic by now.”

In fact, many of those who were vying for the crown in 1066 had Scandinavian links, although Harold’s were among the strongest. His mother was Gytha Thorkelsdóttir, granddaughter of Swedish Viking Styrbjörn the Strong.

The strong links between England and Scandinavia at the time are demonstrated by the Scandinavian-sounding name of Harold’s common law wife, Ealdgyth Swanneshals, known in English as Edith Swanneck.

The researchers are also looking for people of the lineage of Edgar the Aetheling, who was chosen as king but never crowned.

Simon Judges, who is promoting English Heritage’s ancestor search, says there are no plans to throw Elizabeth II off the throne.

“This is a what if scenario. We’re not into sedition or treason or anything,” he said. He also points out that the throne in that period was less likely than today to pass down through generations of the same family.

“There were many challenges to the throne at the time. In a sense, it was more democratic.”

People who think that they might be descended from one of the English kings are encouraged to visit a special website, where they can find out how to stake their claim.

Death of Harold Godwinson

The account of the battle Carmen de Hastingae Proelio (the Song of the Battle of Hastings), said to have been written shortly after the battle by Guy, Bishop of Amiens, says that Harold was killed by four knights, probably including Duke William, and his body brutally dismembered. Amatus of Montecassino’s L’Ystoire de li Normant (History of the Normans), written thirty years after the battle of Hastings, is the first report of Harold being shot in the eye with an arrow. Later accounts reflect one or both of these two versions. A figure in the panel of the Bayeux Tapestry with the inscription “Harold Rex Interfectus Est” (Harold the King is killed) is depicted gripping an arrow that has struck his eye, but some historians have questioned whether this man is intended to be Harold, or if Harold is intended as the next figure lying to the right almost prone, being mutilated beneath a horse’s hooves.

The spot where Harold Godwinson died which became the site of Battle Abbey.
Harold Stone